“Dawn of a New Day: New York City Between the Fairs”
February 21, 2014
On a balmy spring day in 1939, the New York World’s Fair officially opened for business. That day, it welcomed roughly 200,000 visitors to its extensive grounds, which had only recently been developed out of the old Corona ash dump. The Fair’s numerous pavilions and attractions all loosely coalesced around a single theme, “Building the World of Tomorrow,” and its desire to compel and reinvent and present visitors with the idea of a technologicallyenhanced future was epitomized by the Fair’s two symbols, the Trylon and Perisphere. The Perisphere contained an installation called Democracity, designed by Henry Dreyfuss and sponsored by the Fair Committee, which took visitors on a journey into the city of the future. Not far away at the General Motors Pavilion another exhibit, Norman Bel Geddes’ Futurama, reinforced this vision of the city. Both exhibits provided a bird’seye view of a massive urban area, but an urban area that had been planned, rationalized, and streamlined in such a way as to eliminate the ills that plagued the American city of 1939. There was no crime in the city of tomorrow, no slums, and no poverty. Human conflict and hardship had been eradicated by the heroic efforts of planners and designers. Progress was described as inevitable and uniform. As Norman Bel Geddes himself put it, “for years there was talk that machinery had enslaved the individual, but now it can free the individual…the country as a whole will follow. Living in such a world of light, fresh air, open parks, easy movement, the man of 1960 will more naturally play his full part in the community and develop in mind and body.”
Announcing ‘The 20th Century Historians’ Working Group:’ a new project at CUNY’s Graduate Center for the exploration of 20th century history and society.
Please forward our Spring 2014 call for papers far and wide. As always, we welcome submissions on any twentieth-century history. Our particular interests this semester include:
- Fresh labor history, turning the new historiography of capitalism on its head
- Diplomatic history and empire
- Sex, gender, and the culture wars
- Immigration history, immigrant politics, and diaspora
- Voting rights and the state
- The working class in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movement
- Popular cultures
- Rural and small-urban history
For more information, please see the full call for papers below.
The 20th Century Working Group is a standing, critical conversation among doctoral students about our respective research, our scholarly interests, and our broader orientation, as historians,toward contemporary political and social questions.In the interest of encouraging participation and building the organization, we are casting a widenet. Here are the guidelines for submissions:
- We are seeking papers on a broad array of topics—anything that could be consideredpart of the “long twentieth century,” from the late 19th century to the present.
- We are seeking papers that focus on the social, broadly defined, with an eye to theeconomic, political, and cultural transformations of the “modern” era.
- There are no regional, national, or linguistic constraints on the subject; we welcome localstudy of anywhere, in the same way we encourage submissions that cross borders. Full disclosure: The membership of our network currently centers on students of modern U.S.history. We welcome and encourage membership and contributions from all otherspecialties centered on the “long twentieth century.”
- The paper should be a work in progress—that is, part of an ongoing research project, achapter of a larger work, or a piece of scholarship aimed at developing a larger project.Of particular interest for this semester’s sessions of the Working Group are the following histories—though we continue to welcome and encourage submissions beyond these categories:
- Fresh labor history, turning the new historiography of capitalism on its head.
- Diplomatic history and empire.
- Sex, gender, and the culture wars.
- Immigration history, immigrant politics, and diaspora.
- Voting rights and the state.
- The working class in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movement.
- Popular cultures.
- Rural and small-urban history.
The paper should be 20-30 pages of text (roughly 10,000 words) or shorter.
TO SUBMIT: Please send an abstract of 2-3 paragraphs, along with a brief description ofyourself and your research interests and objectives. Please send these submissions (just the abstract for now, not the paper itself) as a word-compatible attachment to: 20thcentpapers(at)gmail(dot)com.
The group meets every other Friday for peer-led discussion in a workshop format. Readers andpresenters exchange ideas, criticism, and general inquiries in a relaxed but rigorous conversational setting.
“’The Federal Government Can and Should Provide Maximum Leadership’: The Problem of Age Discrimination and the Failure of Executive Order 11141, 1956-1967″
Friday, February 7
On February 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued Executive Order (E.O.) 11141, which sought to provide “maximum leadership” by the federal government on the issue of age discrimination in the workplace by expressly affirming that “it is the policy of the Executive Branch of the Government that contractors and subcontractors engaged in the performance of Federal contracts shall not, in connection with the employment, advancement, or discharge of employees, or in connection with the terms, conditions, or privileges of their employment, discriminate against persons because of their age except upon the basis of a bona fide occupational qualification, retirement plan, or statutory requirement.” The idea for the order, a Department of Labor initiative, had originated in a memo which President John F. Kennedy’s staff had circulated within the various Executive branch departments nearly a year beforehand in March 1963. After a period of heated internal agency review, Executive Order 11141’s language was reworked and made more amenable before its formal announcement. The revamped order was a shadow of its former self. Its length had been increased but its language had been weakened: in its final form, the Executive Order lacked any implantation device or enforcement language; nor was it placed under the supervision of any federal agency. In other words, it was a paper tiger, and a particularly toothless one at that. Despite the high hopes of well-placed individuals in the Kennedy-Johnson administration that Executive Order 11141 could function cut down on workplace discrimination, the order failed to accomplish its stated purpose.