Micki Kaufman: “Everything on Paper Will Be Used Against Me: Quantifying Kissinger, 1968-1977”

Micki Kaufman

“Everything on Paper Will Be Used Against Me: Quantifying Kissinger, 1968-1977”

Friday, November 22, 2013
2:30 pm


Perhaps more than any other former Secretary of State or National Security Advisor, the public ‘celebrity’ of Henry Kissinger was (and remains) based upon an array of paradoxes both conscious and unconscious. As compelling as the foreign policy insights detailed in the prior section, these internal contradictions within Kissinger’s political and personal (and ostensibly, moral) psychology have been the subject of much of the recent historical study of ‘Kissingerology.’ Scholars who have applied a more traditional policy-centric interpretive model to these studies have faced significant difficulty in their efforts to understand what at first glance appear to be apparently incompatible motives and behavior, attempting with varying degrees of success to reconcile facets of a public figure who appears to embody a host of mutually exclusive dichotomies. Employing computational text analysis techniques (word collocation, topic modeling and word frequency analysis), I have attempted to quantify and illuminate some of the evidence for these dichotomies in Kissinger’s own official correspondence.


Nick Juravich: “A Union of Paraprofessionals?: Paraprofessional Organizing in Education, 1968-1978”

Nick Juravich

“A Union of Paraprofessionals?: Paraprofessional Organizing in Education, 1968-1978”

Friday, November 8, 2013


The paper analyzes the creation and development of paraprofessional programs in public education, focusing on New York City as both a case study and a hub for the promotion of programs nationwide. In the mid-1960s, school districts in low- income communities across the United States used funds provided by federal legislation to hire local residents, primarily the mothers of schoolchildren, to work in public schools. “Paras” provided instructional and disciplinary assistance in classrooms, worked in their neighborhoods to forge links between schools and communities, and trained to become teachers. Poorly paid at first, paras unionized with locals of the American Federation of Teachers, beginning in New York City in 1969. Hundreds of thousands of paras worked in American schools by the mid- 1970s. I believe this study fresh perspectives on histories of education, social protest, teacher unionism, and, more broadly the relationship between education, poverty, and the welfare state. Paras worked to integrate the teaching corps and promote community participation in schooling, but also joined unions and fought to make their locals equally responsive to community needs. Like many War on Poverty initiatives, para programs focused on education and training, but they also created jobs and redistributed resources to communities. Preliminary research suggests that paras remade schools, communities, and unions (and the relationships between them) in ways that improved public education in this era, and might inform current debates about the role of communities and unions in schools.